MUTUM NE YA DAURA WA MACE AURE CIKIN IDDA SANNAN KUMA YA SADU DA ITA, KO AURE NA IYA HALATTA A TSAKANINSU DAGA BAYA?

DAGA SHEIKH DR. IBRAHIM JALO JALINGO (SHUGABAN MAJALISAR MALAMAI TA KUNGIYAR JAMA’ATU IZALATIL BIDI’AH WA IQAMATIS SUNNAH NIGERIA)

‘Yan’uwa Musulmi! Wannan amsar wata tambaya ce da wasu ‘yan’uwa suka min game da mutumin da ya daura wa mace aure cikin iddarta ya kuma sadu da ita, shin hakan zai haramta aure a tsakaninsu har abada ne ko kuwa a’a bayan an bata auren an raba tsakaninsu yana iya dawowa ya aure ta?
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Don amsa wannan tambaya za mu ambaci abubuwa kamar haka:-
Abu na farko: Ya kamata a san cewa abin nufi da idda a nan shi ne: iddar ko wace irin mace; mai ciki ce, ko kuwa marar ciki ce, iddar da take yi idda ce ta sahihin aure, ko kuwa idda ce ba ta sahihin aure ba; watau kamar iddar da take yi saboda zinan da aka yi da ita, ko kuwa saboda saduwa da aka yi da ita cikin kure, ko kuwa saboda saduwa da aka yi da ita cikin bataccen aure. Sannan babu bambanci tsakanin kasancewar wanda ya sadu da ita cikin iddar shi ne mutumin da ya yi zina da ita ko kuwa ba shi ne ba.

Abu na biyu: Babu sabani tsakanin Malamai game da cewa: dukkan mutumin da ya daura wa mace aure a cikin iddar auren waninsa to lalle wannan ya saba wa Allah kuma wannan auren batacce ne.

Abu na uku: Malamai sun yi sabani zuwa kauli biyu game da hukuncin wanda ya auri mace cikin iddar auren waninsa, sannan kuma ya sadu da ita cikin wannan aure nasu, ko zai halatta gare shi ya sake aurenta bayan ta gama iddarta na auren farko, ko kuwa aurenta ba zai halatta gare shi ba?

Abu na hudu: babu wani nassi daga Alqur’ani mai girma ko daga wani hadithin Manzon Allah mai tsira da mincin Allah Sahihi cikin wannan mas’ala tamu.
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MAZHABAR MALAMAI CIKIN WANNAN MAS’ALAR:

1. Hanafiyyah, da Shafi’iyyah, da Hambaliyyah, da riwaya daga Imam Malik sun tafi a kan cewa: Wanda ya daura wa mace aure cikin iddar auren waninsa kuma ya sadu da ita, toh wannan auren batacce ne dole a raba su, amma kuma za a ba wa matar sadakin kwatankwacinta a matsayi, toh amma bayan ta gama iddar mijinta na farkon, shi wannan da ya daura mata aure cikin iddar kuma ya sadu da ita yana da damar ya sake daura mata aure.

Daga cikin littattafan Hanafiyyah kuna iya duban: Ahkaamul Qur’an na Jassas 2/133.
Daga cikin littattafan Shafi’iyyah kuna iya duban: Ahkaamulu Qur’an na Harras 1/199, da Al-Bayan 11/101, da Raudatut Taalibiin 6/373.
Daga cikin littattafan Hambaliyyah kuna iya duban: Al-Mugnii 11/239, da Al-Kaafii 5/28, da Al-Mubdi,i 8/136, da Kashshaful Qinaa5/427.

2. Malikiyyah, da tsohon kaulin Shafi’ii, da riwaya daga Imam Ahmad sun tafi a kan cewa: auren batacce ne, za a kuma raba tsakaninsu, sannan kuma ba za ta sake haalatta gare shi ba; ko ta hanyar aure, ko ta hanyar mallaka.

Daga cikin littattafan Malkiyyah kuna iya duba: Ahkaamul Qur’an na Ibnul Arabii 1/215, da Al-Jaami’u Li Ahkaamil Qur’an na Qurtubii 3/128, da Jaami’ul Ummahat shafi na 263, da Mukhtasaru Khalil shafi na 112, da Al-qawaaniin shafi na 210, da Hashiyatud Dusuuqii 3/8-9.
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HUJJOJIN DA MALAMAN MAZHABOBIN SUKA AMBATA:

(i) HUJJAR JUMHUR:

Jumhuurun Malamai watau; Hanafiyyah, da Shafi’iyyah, da Hambaliyyah sun ambaci hujjoji kamar haka:-

1. Suka ce: Malikiyya da suka haramta aure har abada a tsakaninsu, ko dai su ce mana: auren ya haramta ne saboda daurin auren, ko kuwa su ce mana ya haramta ne saboda saduwar da suka yi, ko kuwa su ce mana, ya haramta ne saboda haduwar daurin auren tare da saduwar. Idan wannan shi ne za su gaya mana, toh sai mu ce da su: ai da mu da ku duka mun yi ittifaqi a kan cewa: daurin aure, ko saduwa cikin bataccen aure ba sa haramta aure, saboda da wani zai auri mace ba tare da waliyyi ba, hakan ba zai haramta masa ya sake aurenta ba, duk kuwa da cewa aure ba tare da waliyyi ba haramun ne.
2. Da za ce zina ne ya yi da ita hakan ba zai haramta masa aurenta ba, ke nan saduwa da ita da ya yi cikin auren da ya daura mata cikin idda shi ya fi cancantar rashin haramta masa aurenta daga baya.
3. Ayoyin da suka nuna halaccin aure sun taho ne a bisa Umumi watau a bisa gamammen hukunci, saboda haka ba zai halatta a Khassase watau a killace wani hukunci nasu ba sai da wani kakkarfan dalili, ba irin dalilin da su Malikiyyah suka kawo ba.
4. Idan mutum ya sadu da matar da ya aure ta cikin iddarta aka kuma samu yaro cikin saduwar, shi wannan yaron ba za a kira shi dan-shege ba, a’a za a riskar da shi zuwa ga mahaifinsa, tun da kuwa haka abin yake, ke nan lalle wannan saduwa ta cikin idda bai kamata ta haramta masa sake auren matar ba, kiyasi a kan saduwar da wani zai yi da matar aure.
5. Dama ita idda an shar’anta ta ne saboda a tsare Nasaba (dangantaka) a kuma tsare wa miji mutuncin ruwansa (maniyyinsa) a wannan mas’ala tamu an tsare masa ruwansa saboda an riskar masa da nasabarsa, ke nan muna iya kamanta wannan mas’alar da mas’alar wanda ya yi wa mace Khulu’i sannan kuma ya sake daura mata aure a cikin iddarta.
6. Imamush Shafi’ii ya ruwaito cikin Tartiibul zmusnad 2/186, da kuma cikin Al-Um5/337, haka nan Imam Abdurrazzaq cikin Al-Musannaf athari na 10,532, da Imamul Baihaqii cikin Sunanul Kubraa 7/441, cewa Imam Ataa ya ruwaito cewa: wata mata ta daura aure cikin idda, sai Aliyyu Bin Abii Taalib -Allah Ya kara masa yarda- ya raba tsakaninsu sannan ya ce: ((Duk matar da ta daura aure cikin iddarta sai a raba tsakaninsu, sannan ta karasa kwanukan iddarta na tsohon mijin, kuma ta sake yin iddar jini uku na shi mijin da ya aure ta cikin iddar, sannan daga nan matar tana da zabi, in ta ga dama sai ta auri shi wannan da ya aure ta cikin iddar, in kuma ta ga dama ba za ta aure shi ba)). Intaha.
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(ii) HUJJAR MALIKIYYAH:
Malamanmu na Malikiyyah kuwa sun ambaci hujjoji kamar haka:-

1. Lalle, mutumin da ya auri mace cikin iddarta kuma ya sadu da ita, hakika ya gaggauta wa kansa wani hakki kafin lokacin hakkin ya yi, saboda haka sai a haramta masa wannan hakkin a lokacin da lokacin hakkin ya yi, kamar dai yadda ake haramta gado ga magajin da ya kashe wanda ke gadar masa da dukiya.
2. Saduwa cikin auren cikin idda yana bata Nasaba (dangantaka) saboda haka yake wajabta haramcin aure har abada, kamar dai yadda Li’aani yake wajabta haramci na har abada.
3. Imamu Nalik ya ruwaito cikin Muwatta 2/536, da Imamush Shafi’ii cikin Tartiibul Musnad 2/185, da Imamul Baihaqii cikin Sunanul Kubraa 7/441, da Imamu Abdurrazzaq cikin Musannaf athari na 10,539, da Imamu Sa’id Bin Mansur cikin Sunan athari na 698, daga Sa’idu Bin Musayyib, da Sulaiman Bin Yasaar cewa: Tulaihatu ta kasance tana karkashin arashiiduth Thaqafii sai ya sake ta yankakken saki, sai ta daura aure a cikin iddarta, sai Umar Bin Khattab -Allah Ya kara masa yarda- ya yi mata bulala ita da mijinta, sannan ya raba tsakaninsu, kuma ya ce: ((Dukkan wata mata da ta yi aure a cikin iddarta, idan mijin da ya daura mata auren bai sadu da ita ba, toh sai ta karasa iddar mijin farkon, babu kuma iddar miji na biyun a kanta, in kuma ta gama iddarta yana iya shiga cikin masu nemanta. In kuma shi wanda ya daura mata sure cikin iddar ya sadu da ita toh sai a raba tsakaninsu, sannan ta karasa kwanukan iddarta da suka rage, kuma ta sake yin iddar shi mijin da ya aure ta cikin iddar, kuma ba zai sake aurenta ba har abada)). Intaha.
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KAULIN DA NA RINJAYAR CIKIN WANNAN MAS’ALA:

Kaulin da na rinjayar cikin wannan mas’ala shi ne kaulin jumhurin malamai, watau: Hanafiyyah, da Shafi’iyyah, da Hambaliyyah, saboda ina ganin cewa hujjojin da suka ambata sun fi wadanda Malikiyyah suka ambata karfi, saboda abubuwa guda hudu:-

Abu na farko shi ne: Dukkan Malaman sun yarda da cewa: da za a ce wani mazinaci ya yi zina da wata mace, toh lalle hakan ba zai haramta yin aure a tsakaninsu ba, in kuwa haka lamarin yake toh bai kamata ba a ce saduwa da mace cikin auren da aka daura cikin idda zai haramta yin aure a tsakaninsu ba, domin komin tsananin munin da ke cikin wannan saduwa, babu yadda za a yi ya kai irin tsananin munin da ke cikin zina.

Abu na biyu shi ne: Maganar Sayyidina Umar Bin Khattab -Allah Ya kara masa yarda- da malamanmu na Malikiyyah suka kafa hujja da ita, a gaskiya ba za ta iya zama hujja ba a nan, saboda an sami maganar wani Sahabin da ya saba mata, wannan Sahabin kuwa shi ne Sayyidina Aliyyu Bin Abii Taalib -Allah Ya kara masa yarda-

Abu na uku shi ne: Iamamul Baihaqii ya ruwaito cikin As-Sunanul Kubraa 7/441,442, da Imamu Sa’id Bin Mansur cikin As-Sunan 1/314 cewa Umar Bin Khattab ya dawo kan fatawar shi Aliyyu Bin Abii Taalib daga baya, sanoda shi Aliyyu ya ce: ((Idan iddarta ya kare sai ya zama daya daga cikin manemanta, sai Umar Bin Khattab ya ce: Ku maido da abubuwan da ba a sani ba zuwa ga Sunnah’ daga nan sai ya dawo zuwa ga fatawar Aliyyu)).

Abu na hudu shi ne: Qiyaasin da Malamanmu na Malkiyyah suka ambata, Qiyasi ne da zai zama mara ma’ana idan aka yi la’akari da cewa: Da za a ce wani zai yi zina da wata mata, toh da wannan zinan ba zai iya haramta aure har abada a tsakaninsu ba, duk kuwa da cewa kowa da kowa ya san da cewa shi wannan mazinacin ya gaggauta wata saduwa ce da wata mace tun kafin lokacin halaccin saduwa da ita ya yi, watau tun kafin ya aure ta aure irin na Shari’ah.
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muna fata Allah Ya taimake mu Ya tabbatar da dugaduginmu a kan sunnar Annabi mai tsira da amincin Allah. Ameen.

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